A fracture is a situation in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. In younger persons, these fractures are caused by high energy injuries, such as a motor vehicle accident. In older persons, the most common cause is fragile and weak bone.
Knee fractures can include the following:
- Distal femur fracture– The distal femur is pa ortion of the femur bone that flares out like the mouth of the funnel. A distal femur (top portion of knee joint) fracture is a break in thighbone that occurs just above your knee joint.
- Femoral shaft fracture– A femoral shaft fracture is a break that occurs anywhere along the femoral shaft, straight, long portion of the femur.
- Fractures of proximal tibia– A proximal tibial fracture is a break in the upper part of the tibia or shin bone. proximal tibial fractures may or may not involve the joint of the knee. Fractures that enter the knee joint may cause irregular joint surfaces, joint imperfections, and improper alignment of legs. This can lead to as arthritis, joint instability, and loss of motion. These fractures are caused by trauma or stress or in a bone already compromised by disease, such as infection or cancer. Proximal tibia fractures can result in injury to the surrounding soft tissues including muscle, nerves, ligaments, and blood vessels.
- Tibial shaft fractures– A tibial shaft fracture is a break that occurs along the length of the shin bone or tibia (larger bone of lower leg) between the ankle and knee joints. These fractures can occur at the time of playing sports such as soccer and
Diagnosis is made through your physical examination, medical history, and other diagnosing imaging tests. X-rays are taken to identify whether the bone is broken or intact. X-rays are also helpful to know the location and type of fracture. Your doctor may also recommend a (computerized tomography) CT scan to know the seriousness of the fracture.
Options for treatment include surgical and non-surgical. Non-surgical treatment involves skeletal traction and use of braces and casts. Skeletal traction involves pin placement into the bone to realign broken bones. Surgery involves external fixation and internal fixation. Surgeons use orthopedic implants to perform the surgery, provided by the trauma implants suppliers in India.
Intramedullary nailing: In this process, a specially intended metal rod is placed into the femur’s marrow canal. Then the orthopedic nail is passed on to reach the site of fracture and keep it in its position. The rod is secured in place with bone screws at both ends.
Screws and plates fixation– In this process, your surgeon will reposition the broken bone ends into usual position and then uses special screws or metal bone plates on the outer surface of the bone to hold bone fragments in its position.
During the process, metal pins or screws are inserted into the middle of the tibia and femur and are attached to a medical device outside the skin to hold bone fragments in position to enable healing and alignment. If your bone is fractured in several parts, a rod or plate is fixed at both ends of the fracture to maintain the overall length and shape of the bone in place while it heals. In older patients where fracture healing delays, a bone graft taken from the tissue bank or patient may be used to form callous. In serious cases, the bone fragments are removed, and the bone is replaced with a knee replacement implant.
The most common complications of surgery include knee stiffness, infection, knee arthritis, and delayed bone healing.